Gunnar Myhre is research director for the Atmospheric Sciences group.
Key 5 publications:
Myhre, G., O. Boucher, F-M, Breon, P. Forster, D. Shindell, 2015, Declining uncertainty in transient climate response as CO2 forcing dominates future climate change, Nature Geoscience, 8, doi:10.1038/ngeo2371, 181-185.
Hodnebrog, Ø., Myhre, G. and Samset, B., 2014, How shorter black carbon lifetime alters its climate effect, Nature Communication, 5, 5065.
Samset, B. H., Myhre, G., Herber, A., Kondo, Y., Li, S. M., Moteki, N., Koike, M., Oshima, N., Schwarz, J. P., Balkanski, Y., Bauer, S. E., Bellouin, N., Berntsen, T. K., Bian, H., Chin, M., Diehl, T., Easter, R. C., Ghan, S. J., Iversen, T., Kirkevåg, A., Lamarque, J. F., Lin, G., Liu, X., Penner, J. E., Schulz, M., Seland, Ø., Skeie, R. B., Stier, P., Takemura, T., Tsigaridis, K. and Zhang, K. , 2014, Modeled black carbon radiative forcing and atmospheric lifetime in AeroCom Phase II constrained by aircraft observations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14(22), 12465-12477.
Myhre, G., B. H. Samset, M. Schulz, Y. Balkanski, S. Bauer, T. K. Berntsen, H. Bian, N. Bellouin, M. Chin, T. Diehl, R. C. Easter, J. Feichter, S. J. Ghan, D. Hauglustaine, T. Iversen, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevåg, J.-F. Lamarque, G. Lin, X. Liu, M.T. Lund, G. Luo, X. Ma,T. van Noije, J. E. Penner, P. J. Rasch, A. Ruiz, Ø. Seland, R. B. Skeie, P. Stier, T. Takemura, K. Tsigaridis, P. Wang, Z. Wang, L. Xu, H. Yu, F. Yu, J.-H. Yoon, K. Zhang, H. Zhang, and C. Zhou, Radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect from AeroCom Phase II simulations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1853-1877.
Myhre, G., 2009, Consistency Between Satellite-Derived and Modeled Estimates of the Direct Aerosol Effect, Science, 325, 187-190
AMMONIA: Climate and environmental impacts of green ammonia (NH3)
The development of green ammonia (NH3) has recently gained wide interest due to its potential to decarbonize ammonia production and as a carbon-free solution for energy storage and transportation. Green ammonia production is purely based on renewable energy sources and no carbon is associated with its use, e.g. as a chemical fertilizer, or when ammonia is combusted in an engine. However, the production and use of ammonia come with other climate and environmental challenges due to its alteration of the Earth’s nitrogen cycle.
Transport | Renewable energy | Energy consumption
ReGame: Reliable global methane emissions estimates in a changing world
In REGAME we will update chemistry transport models (FLEXPART, OsloCTM) to include the kinetic isotope effect (KIE) of methane (CH4), enabling better constraints on the CH4 budget (KIE is dependent on source/ sink). We will update the atmospheric inversion framework FLXINVERT to include novel use of satellite CH4 fields (Sentinel 5P). This will include significant changes to FLEXINVERT, which will also be applicable to other satellite data e.g. carbon dioxide (co₂) and improve the model capabilities to handle large data fields in general. With these upgrades we assess CH4 emissions from the major sources (wetlands, biomass burning, anthropogenic) at the global scale using all available data (e.g. ICOS, NOAA data, data on ebas.nilu.no). This data includes measurements from the Zeppelin Observatory in the Arctic, to Troll in Antarctica, i.e. from pole-to-pole.
BUDGET: Constraining future precipitation changes in Europe and the Arctic from historical observations of the atmospheric energy budget
BUDGET will increase our understanding of the causes to why climate models have such large differences in future Arctic rainfall and summer precipitation in northern Europe. This will be accomplished using satellite data and climate model calculations over the last 40 years. The analyzes will provide knowledge of whether processes related to transport in the atmosphere, evaporation or absorption of radiation are the reasons for different results from the climate models. By using and developing the climate models with most realistic precipitation changes and largescale processes in accordance with ground-based observations and satellite measurements, we can improve estimates of precipitation change and related climate extremes.
Precipitation changes | Climate Models
ARIDITY - The role of anthropogenic dust in the present and future climate system
Dust is the most abundant species of aerosol in the atmosphere. While mineral dust from deserts is the largest source, an important but less well-studied component is soil dust from sparsely vegetated surfaces. Commonly referred to as “anthropogenic dust”, arising from the influence of human activities on land surfaces and subsequent increase in wind erosion and dust emissions, this source is believed to contribute a substantial fraction to the total global dust load. However, the contribution and climate impact of anthropogenic dust, through interactions with radiation, clouds and precipitation, is poorly quantified.
Atmospheric particles | Climate Models | Air pollution | Precipitation changes
EPIC - Extreme Precipitation In Cleaner air
In EPIC we are investigating a possible link between changes in air pollution and a trend towards more hazardous extreme precipitation. Our overall goal is to increase our understanding of what controls extreme precipitation and reduce the uncertainty in estimates of future extremes. At this stage of our project, we are analyzing observational data and running cloud models to investigate how heavy precipitation reacts to our particle emissions.
Extreme weather | Atmospheric particles | Climate Models
UTRICS: Understanding Temporal aerosol Radiative forcing - Implications for Climate Sensitivity and future warming
Global temperatures are rising due to the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. In addition to increasing greenhouse gas emissions, human activity has changed the composition of particles in the atmosphere. These have masked some of the warming caused by the greenhouse gases. How large is this cooling effect, and how has it changed over time?
ACCEPT: Aerosols, Cloud Changes and Energy transport into the Polar domain: The role of feedbacks to the local climate responser
The Arctic is warming more than twice as fast as the rest of the world, with dramatically decreasing trends in sea-ice and snow cover (AMAP,2017). This ‘Arctic amplification’ of global warming is a feature of human-made climate change, but its causes and consequences are not fully understood.
Arctic | Atmospheric particles | Climate Models
Hydrogen is often considered a green energy carrier that has the potential to replace oil, but little is known about its environmental and climate impacts. Over the next three years, CICERO will therefore study what these impacts are.
ICOS: Integrated Carbon Observation System Norway and Ocean Thematic Centre (OTC), phase 2
ICOS (Integrated Carbon Observation System) is a programme within the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) list of European infrastructures.
ChiNorBC - Chinese-Norwegian Project on Emission, Impact, and Control Policy for Black Carbon and its Co-benefits in Northern China
This project will help enhance the knowledge base for and support the development of a strategy for BC/OC co-control in China.
Adaptation | Health | Emission scenarios | Carbon emissions globally