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Energy and sustainable urban transport development in China: Challenges and solutions

Hu, Xiaojun, Zhang, X.L. (Working Paper;2002:02)

This paper presents an overview of urban road transport development and challenges in energy consumption in China. It relates sustainable urban road transport development with energy consumption and environmental management. It analyzes the main challenges related to urban road transport development...

Mobile source pollution control in the United States and China

Menz, Fredric C. (Working Paper;2002:01)

This paper reviews policies for the control of mobile source pollution and their potential application in China. The first section of the paper reviews the U.S. experience with mobile source pollution control since regulations were first established in the Clean Air Act of 1970. Highlights in the...

Føre var-prinsippet som rasjonelt beslutningskriterium

Hovi, Jon (Working Paper;2001:13)

Notatet spør om føre var-prinsippet kan betraktes som et rasjonelt beslutningskriterium. Forfatteren fokuserer på i alt seks uavklarte spørsmål: 1. Representerer prinsippet et bestemt sett av politiske handlingsalternativer, eller et det et genuint beslutningskriterium? 2. Hvis det er det siste, lar...

Decentralized enforcement, sequential bargaining, and the Clean Development Mechanism

Hovi, Jon (Working Paper;2001:12)

While there is a vast literature both on international bargaining and on how international agreements can be enforced, very little work has been done on how bargaining and enforcement interact. An important exception is Fearon (1998), who models international cooperation as a two-stage process in wh...

Estimating and managing uncertainties in order to detect terrestrial greenhouse gas removals

Baritz, Rainer, Rypdal, Kristin (Working Paper;2002:07)

Inventories of emissions and removals of greenhouse gases will be used under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and under the Kyoto protocol to demonstrate compliance with obligations. During the negotiation process of the Kyoto protocol it has been a concern that uptake of ca...

Market power in the market for greenhouse gas emission permits - the interplay with the fossil fuel markets

Mæstad, Ottar, Hagem, Cathrine (Working Paper;2002:08)

Implementation of the Kyoto Protocol is likely to leave Russa and other Eastern European countries with market power in the market for emission permits. Ceteris paribus, this will raise the permit price above the competitive permit price. However, Russia is also a large exporter of fossil fuels. A h...

Enforcing the climate regime: Game theory and the Marrakesh Accords

Hovi, Jon (Working Paper;2002:06)

This article reviews basic insights about compliance and “hard” enforcement that can be derived from various non-cooperative equilibrium concepts, and evaluates the Marrakesh Accords in light of these insights. Five different notions of equilibrium are considered – the Nash equilibrium, the subgame...

Group size effects in two repeated game models of a global climate agreement

Helland, Leif (Working Paper;2002:05)

What levels of total abatement can one hope for in a global climate agreement? Some potential answers to this question are provided by game theory. This working paper contains a critical discussion of two (prominent) game models that answer the question quite pessimistically. Both models take the n-...

Green electricity policy in the Netherlands: An analysis of policy decisions

van Wees, Mark, van Rooijen, Sascha (Working Paper;2003:08)

Over the last decades, fundamental changes in both market conditions and the national and international policy framework in the Netherlands can be observed. The Dutch Government has intervened in markets regularly, demonstrating fundamental shifts in policy and approach. This study aims to analyse t...

Option values and the timing of climate policy

Hans Asbjørn Aaheim, Froyn, Camilla Bretteville (Working Paper;2003:04)

This paper reconsiders the importance of irreversibilities in climate change policy. The model presented here captures the irreversibility of both climate change due to greenhouse gas emissions and abatement technology investments, both of which are subject to uncertainty that will necessarily chang...