CICERO - Center for International Climate Research

Phone: +47 22 00 47 51 /


Meteorologist with special interest in atmospheric particles

Maria uses global climate models to understand how particles and other short-lived climate forcers in the atmosphere impact the climate system. Her research focuses on the Arctic region, and the radiative forcing and climate response of black carbon aerosols. Maria holds a PhD in Atmospheric Sciences from the University of Oslo. She has also worked two years as a guest researcher at NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies in New York.


  • The role of short-lived climate forcers in the global climate regime The primary objective of the project is to provide a comprehensive assessment of the potential of mitigation of Short-Lived Climate Forcers (SLCFs) in the emerging global climate regime.
  • BlackArc (Black carbon and Arctic climate) How do Black Carbon (BC) aerosols influence Arctic climate change? The outcome of the ‘BlackArc’ project is to reduce the uncertainty in modelling BC and to better constrain the climate impact of BC with an Arctic focus.
  • EVA - Earth system modelling of climate Variations in the Anthropocene EVA will provide a cutting-edge version of the Norwegian Earth system model NorESM for global climate assessments (CMIP6, IPCC AR6) including prognostic climate experiments and analyses of key importance for the national and international community
  • Cryosphere - Atmosphere interactions in changing Arctic climate Objectives: To identify and quantify the major processes controlling Arctic warming and related feedback mechanisms, outline strategies to mitigate Arctic warming, and develop Nordic Earth System modelling. The focus is on short-lived climate forcers (SLCF), including natural and anthropogenic aerosols.
  • CICERO to study the climate impacts of hydrogen emissions Hydrogen is often considered a green energy carrier that has the potential to replace oil, but little is known about its environmental and climate impacts. Over the next three years, CICERO will therefore study what these impacts are.

Publications and outreach at CICERO

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Journal article


  • Maria Sand, Bjørn Hallvard Samset, Gunnar Myhre, Jonas Gliss, Susanne E. Bauer, Huisheng Bian, Mian Chin, Ramiro Checa-Garcia, Paul Ginoux, Zak Kipling, Alf Kirkevåg, Harri Kokkola, Philippe Le Sager, Marianne Tronstad Lund, Hitoshi Matsui, Twan Van Noije, Dirk Jan Leo Oliviè, Samuel Rémy, M Schulz, Philip Stier, Camilla Weum Stjern, Toshihiko Takemura, Kostas Tsigaridis, Svetlana G. Tsyro, Duncan Watson-Parris, 2021 Aerosol absorption in global models from AeroCom phase III Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Copernicus GmbH, EN



  • Anna Lewinschal, Annica M. L. Ekman, Hans-Christen Hansson, Maria Sand, Terje K. Berntsen, Joakim Langner, 2019 Local and remote temperature response of regional SO2 emissions Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Copernicus GmbH, EN
  • Michael Boy, Erik S. Thomson, Juan-Camilo Acosta Navarro, Olafur Arnalds, Ekaterina Batchvarova, Jaana Bäck, Frank Berninger, Merete Bilde, Zoé Brasseur, Pavla Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Dimitri Castarède, Maryam Dalirian, Gerrit de Leeuw, Monika Dragosics, Ella-Maria Duplissy, Jonathan Duplissy, Annica Ekman, Keyan Fang, Jean-Charles Gallet, Marianne Glasius, Sven-Erik Gryning, Henrik Grythe, Hans-Christen Hansson, Margareta Hansson, Elisabeth Isaksson, Trond Iversen, Ingibjörg Svala Jónsdóttir, Ville Kasurinen, Alf Kirkevåg, Atte Korhola, Radovan Krejci, Jon Egill Kristjansson, Hanna K. Lappalainen, Antti Lauri, Matti Leppäranta, Heikki Lihavainen, Risto Makkonen, Andreas Massling, Outi Meinander, E. Douglas Nilsson, Haraldur Ólafsson, Jan B. C. Pettersson, Nønne L. Prisle, Ilona Riipinen, Pontus Roldin, Meri Ruppel, Matthew E. Salter, Maria Sand, Øyvind Seland, Heikki Seppä, Henrik Skov, Joana Soares, Andreas Stohl, Johan Ström, Jonas Svensson, Erik Swietlicki, Ksenia Tabakova, Throstur Thorsteinsson, Aki Virkkula, Gesa A. Weyhenmeyer, Yusheng Wu, Paul Zieger, Markku Kulmala, 2019 Interactions between the atmosphere, cryosphere, and ecosystems at northern high latitudes Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Copernicus GmbH, EN
  • Ulas Im, Jesper H. Christensen, Ole-Kenneth Nielsen, Maria Sand, Risto Makkonen, Camilla Geels, Camilla Anderson, Jaakko Kukkonen, Susana Lopez-Aparicio, Jørgen Brandt, 2019 Contributions of Nordic anthropogenic emissions on air pollution and premature mortality over the Nordic region and the Arctic Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Copernicus GmbH, EN
  • Camilla Weum Stjern, Marianne Tronstad Lund, Bjørn Hallvard Samset, Gunnar Myhre, Piers M. Forster, Timothy Andrews, Olivier Boucher, Gregory Faluvegi, Dagmar Fläschner, Trond Iversen, Matthew Kasoar, Viatcheslav Kharin, Alf Kirkevåg, Jean-François Lamarque, Dirk Jan Leo Oliviè, Thomas Richardson, Maria Sand, Dilshad Shawki, Drew Shindell, Christopher J. Smith, Toshihiko Takemura, Apostolos Voulgarakis, 2019 Arctic Amplification Response to Individual Climate Drivers Journal of Geophysical Research (JGR): Space Physics, EN
  • Bjørn Hallvard Samset, Camilla Weum Stjern, Marianne Tronstad Lund, Christian Wilhelm Mohr, Maria Sand, Anne Sophie Daloz, 2019 How daily temperature and precipitation distributions evolve with global surface temperature Earth's Future, EN



  • Maria Sand, Bjørn Hallvard Samset, Yves Balkanski, Susanne Bauer, Nicolas Bellouin, Terje K. Berntsen, Huisheng Bian, Mian Chin, Thomas Diehl, Richard Easter, Steve J. Ghan, Trond Iversen, Alf Kirkevåg, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Guangxing Lin, Xiaohong Liu, Gan Luo, Gunnar Myhre, Twan P.C. Van Noije, Joyce E. Penner, M Schulz, Øyvind Seland, Ragnhild Bieltvedt Skeie, Philip Stier, Toshihiko Takemura, Kostas Tsigaridis, Fangqun Yu, Kai Zhang, Hua Zhang, 2017 Aerosols at the poles: an AeroCom Phase II multi-model evaluation Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), Copernicus GmbH, EN