Phone: +47 22 00 47 38 /
Research on the energy sector: Decisions under uncertainty and Sustainable development.
I am an economist and senior research fellow at CICERO. I have a master degree (1990) in finance from London School of Economics. In 2008, I received a doctoral degree in economics at Norwegian School of Economics.
For 12 years I held a position as a board member in a vertically integrated power company, and I have also been a board member in an energy-intensive aluminium company. I have worked in the natural gas, finance and educational sector before I became a researcher.
I have done research on issues related to energy, climate policy and sustainable development since 2008. My work reflects a theoretical/methodological competence in microeconomics, behavioral economics, econonometrics and real options theory.
I have led an interdisplinary research project on the impacts of climate change on the power sector involving 9 national and international research institutions (CELECT). I have been the driving force behind the development of two real options projects on policy uncertainty and investment risk in the power sector (PURELEC, RISKY-RES). These projects are led by NTNU, institute of industrial economics and technological management. I also contributed to the successful funding of the large strategic research program on renewable energy at the Sogn og Fjordane University College (RELEASE). All these projects are funded by the Research Council of Norway and the energy sector.
My main publications (level II journals) are: “Market and policy risk under different renewable electricity support schemes” (Energy), “Investment barriers under a renewable electricity support scheme: Differences across investor types” (Energy), “Uncertain Climate Policy Decisions and Investment Timing: Evidence from Hydropower Plants” (Energy), “Sustainable development: Our common future revisited” (Global Environmental Change) , “Sustainable Passenger Transport: Back to Brundtland” (Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practise), “Troublesome Leisure Travel: The Contradictions of Three Sustainable Transport Policies” (Urban Studies), “The impact of climate change on nuclear power supply” (Energy Journal).
I have for 12 years been a Board member in a vertically Integrated Power Company (representing BKK in SFE) and I have also been a Board member in the energy intensive industry (Fundo Wheels).
- Investment under uncertainty : EU renewable energy and climate policies beyond 2020 (RISKY-RES) The prospects for EU renewable energy and climate policies beyond 2020 are uncertain. Investors and policy makers in Norway and abroad need knowledge on how to make decisions under this uncertainty. Firms' decisions under uncertainty can be formulated as a real option problem in which the option to delay an irreversible decision has a value. Policy as well as market uncertainty will affect this value. We derive decision rules. These rules can be used to form better forecasts of the power sector’s decisions, and to assess the social welfare cost of different policy designs and uncertain political processes.
- Renewable Energy Projects: Local Impacts and Sustainability Meeting the EU’s and Norway’s ambitious renewable energy targets will have significant local consequences. Policymakers must make decisions that balance the consequences for the economy, the society, and the environment. The project develops knowledge that assists them in such decision-making, while simultaneously providing new theoretical and empirical contributions to real options theory, social theory, restoration ecology, and local sustainable development.
Publications and outreach at CICERO
- Erling Holden, Kristin Linnerud, Bente Johnsen Rygg, 2021 A review of dominant sustainable energy narratives Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, EN
- Kristin Linnerud, Erling Holden, Morten Simonsen, 2021 Closing the sustainable development gap: A global study of goal interactions Sustainable Development, EN
- Merethe Dotterud Leiren, Stine Aakre, Kristin Linnerud, Tom Erik Julsrud, Maria-Rosaria Di Nucci, Michael Krug, 2020 Community acceptance of wind energy developments: Experience from wind energy scarce regions in Europe Sustainability, EN
- Kristin Linnerud, Morten Simonsen, 2017 Swedish-Norwegian tradable green certificates: Scheme design flaws and perceived investment barriers Energy Policy, EN
- Erling Holden, Kristin Linnerud, David Banister, 2017 The Imperatives of Sustainable Development Sustainable Development, EN
- Stein-Erik Fleten, Peter Molnar, Maria Tandberg Nygård, Kristin Linnerud, 2016 Green certificates and investments in small hydro power plants International Conference on the European Energy Market, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers., EN
- Stein-Erik Fleten, Kristin Linnerud, Peter Molnar, Maria Tandberg Nygård, 2016 Green electricity investment timing in practice: Real options or net present value? Energy, EN
- Kristin Linnerud, Erling Holden, 2016 Five criteria for global sustainable development International Journal of Global Environmental Issues, EN
- Kristin Linnerud, 2016 Støtte til elektrisitetsproduksjon fra fornybare kilder. Er risiko et onde? Samfunnsøkonomen, Samfunnsøkonomenes Forening, NB
- Trine Krogh Boomsma, Kristin Linnerud, 2015 Market and policy risk under different renewable electricity support schemes Energy, EN
- Kristin Linnerud, Erling Holden, 2015 Investment barriers under a renewable-electricity support scheme: Differences across investor types Energy, EN
- Kristin Linnerud, Ane Marte Heggedal, Stein-Erik Fleten, 2014 Investment timing under uncertain renewable energy policy: An empirical study of small hydropower projects Energy, EN
- Erling Holden, Kristin Linnerud, David Banister, 2014 Sustainable development: Our Common Future revisited Global Environmental Change, EN
- Erling Holden, Kristin Linnerud, David Banister, 2013 Sustainable Passenger Transport: Back to Brundtland Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, EN
- Ane Marte Heggedal, Kristin Linnerud, Stein-Erik Fleten, 2011 Uncertain Climate Policy Decisions and Investment Timing: Evidence from Small Hydropower Plants Social Science Research Network (SSRN), Social Science Electronic Pub., EN
- Kristin Linnerud, Torben Kenea Mideksa, Gunnar Eskeland, 2011 The Impact of Climate Change on Nuclear Power Supply ATW. Internationale Zeitschrift für Kernenergie, EN
- Erling Holden, Kristin Linnerud, 2011 Troublesome Leisure Travel: The Contradictions of Three Sustainable Transport Policies Urban Studies, EN
- Kristin Linnerud, Torben Kenea Mideksa, Gunnar Eskeland, 2011 The Impact of Climate Change on Nuclear Power Supply Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, EN
- Erling Holden, Kristin Linnerud, 2010 Environmental Attitudes and Household Consumption: An Ambiguous Relationship International Journal of Sustainable Development, EN
- Kristin Linnerud, Dirk Theodor Georg Rübbelke, Stefan Vögele, 2010 Climate Challenges for European Critical Infrastructure Protection: Nuclear Power and Water Supply IAEE International Conference, International Association for Energy Economics, EN
- Kristin Linnerud, Steinar Vagstad, 2010 Access pricing with regulated downstream competition and upstream externalities European Review of Agricultural Economics, EN
- Kristin Linnerud, Stine Aakre, Frode Alfnes, Torjus Folsland Bolkesjø, Anders Dugstad, Merethe Dotterud Leiren, Steffen Kallbekken, Knut Einar Rosendahl, Jon Birger Skjærseth, 2020 An analytical framework for the empirical cases in ENABLE EN
- Kristin Linnerud, Solveig Aamodt, Marianne Tronstad Lund, Anders Tønnesen, Fay Madeleine Farstad, Anne Sophie Daloz, 2020 Helhetlig kunnskapsgrunnlag for klima og naturmangfold NB
- Annegrete Bruvoll, Nina Buvik Westberg, Kristin Linnerud, Asbjørn Torvanger, Maria Rød, 2020 Metode for å kategorisere statsbudsjettets poster etter klimagassutslipp NB
- Kristin Linnerud, Stine Aakre, Merethe Dotterud Leiren, 2018 Deliverable 2.1: Technical and socio-economic conditions- A literature review of social acceptance of wind energy development, and an overview of the technical, socioeconomic and regulatory starting conditions in the wind energy scarce target regions EN
- Kristin Linnerud, Stine Aakre, Merethe Dotterud Leiren, 2018 Deliverable 2.2: Conceptual framework for analysing social acceptance barriers and drivers - Conceptual framework for analysing social acceptance barriers and drivers in the WinWind target regions EN
- Stine Aakre, Merethe Dotterud Leiren, Kristin Linnerud, Rosaria Di Nucci, Michael Krug, Elena De Luca, Nicoletta Del Bufalo, Tania Giuffrida, Ivars Kudrenickis, Pouyan Maleki-Dizaji, Piotr Nowakowski, Maria Cristina Tommasino, Ryszard Wnuk, Gabi Zink-Ehlert, Ehlert Zucika, 2018 Deliverable 2.3: Taxonomy of social acceptance drivers and barriers EN
- Kristin Linnerud, Erling Holden, 2013 Ny vannkraft innen 2020--potensiale og barrierer NB
- Erling Holden, Kristin Linnerud, 2010 The future of sustainable passenger transport EN
- Erling Holden, Kristin Linnerud, 2021 Bærekraftig utvikling. En idé om rettferdighet. NO
- James Meadowcroft, David Banister, Erling Holden, Oluf Langhelle, Kristin Linnerud, Geoffrey Gilpin, 2019 What Next for Sustainable Development? Our Common Future at Thirty EN
- Erling Holden, Kristin Linnerud, David Banister, Valeria Jana Schwanitz, August Hubert Wierling, 2017 The Imperatives of Sustainable Development: Needs, Justice, Limits EN
- Erling Holden, Kristin Linnerud, Holger Schlaupitz, 2009 Transport og miljø NB
Part of a book/report
- Erling Holden, Kristin Linnerud, 2020 Bærekraftig utvikling: fra global idé til lokal verdiskapning? NB
- David Banister, Erling Holden, Oluf Langhelle, Kristin Linnerud, James Meadowcroft, Geoffrey Gilpin, 2019 What Next for Sustainable Development? EN
- Kristin Linnerud, Erling Holden, Geoffrey Gilpin, Morten Simonsen, 2019 A normative model of sustainable development: how do countries comply? EN
- James Meadowcroft, David Banister, Erling Holden, Oluf Langhelle, Kristin Linnerud, Geoffrey Gilpin, 2019 What Next for Sustainable Development? Introduction. EN
- Erling Holden, Kristin Linnerud, 2015 Sustainable Mobility EN
- Erling Holden, Kristin Linnerud, 2015 Troublesome leisure travel: Counterproductive sustainable transport policies EN
- Kristin Linnerud, Trine Krogh Boomsma, 2015 Revision of renewable-electricity support schemes: How policy uncertainty affects investments EN
- Kristin Linnerud, Erling Holden, 2012 Housing and Sustainable Transport EN
- Knut H. Alfsen, Gunnar Eskeland, Kristin Linnerud, 2010 Technological change and the role of non-state actors EN
- Gunnar Eskeland, Patrick Criqui, E. Jochem, Henry Neufeldt, G Catenazzi, W Eichhammer, Alex Held, M. Jakob, Kristin Linnerud, Torben Kenea Mideksa, S Mima, T Traber, W Schade, U Reiter, Nathan Appleton Rive, H Turton, 2010 Transforming the European energy system EN
- Knut H. Alfsen, Gunnar Eskeland, Kristin Linnerud, 2010 Technological change and the roles of government and private actors EN